Tuesday, August 01, 2017

A Follow Up on the Special Places in Hell Post

Not convinced? Alternatively, want to really experience 9 Av and understand why Moshiach is not here?

Brooklyn, NY - My Message For Tisha Ba'v: Judge Ruchie Freier: Reflections From The Bench On Judging Our Children


Brooklyn, NY - My Message For Tisha Ba'v: Judge Ruchie Freier: Reflections From The Bench On Judging Our Children

Published on: August 1st, 2017 at 07:35 AM
By: Ruchie Freier
Lt. Judge Carolyn Wade chats with Rachel Freier in Brooklyn, NY on December 22, 2016. Winner of the election for civil court judge in Brooklyn's 5th District, Rachel Freier, who is the first Hasidic woman to hold elective office in the United States, took her oath of office during an induction ceremony in Brooklyn's Borough Hall, administered by her uncle, retired Supreme Court judge David Schmidt (Photo by Andy Katz/Pacific Press) Lt. Judge Carolyn Wade chats with Rachel Freier in Brooklyn, NY on December 22, 2016. Winner of the election for civil court judge in Brooklyn's 5th District, Rachel Freier, who is the first Hasidic woman to hold elective office in the United States, took her oath of office during an induction ceremony in Brooklyn's Borough Hall, administered by her uncle, retired Supreme Court judge David Schmidt (Photo by Andy Katz/Pacific Press)
Brooklyn, NY -  I remember seven years ago when I first met 14 year old Malky Klein a”h.  She was sitting across me in the Seforim Room in my home.  She pensive yet pretty, wearing a long skirt and dressed B’Tznius.  Malky was wearing the uniform of the school that had expelled her because she was hurt and ashamed and did not want anyone to know that she had no school. 
Her parents were worried as she was experiencing challenges; no high school wanted to accept her.  Since Malky’s passing, many people are coming forward attacking the “system” and warning us of the dire consequences.  What people don’t know is the missing piece to this story. 
During the early years of my community service, I began advocating for kids at risk and formed B’Derech focusing on adolescent Youth at Risk, primarily boys in the Chassidish Community.
My previous articles appeard here on VIN share my early experience.
One night, in late 2010, my aunt, Miriam Schwartz, called me.  “Ruchie, you must help me get my good friend Rifka Klein’s daughter into high school.”  My aunt explained that she knows this girl and her family for years and they were wonderful people. She explained there was a meeting tonight at a certain high school that Mrs. Klein was afraid to attend because if the other mothers see her, they would protest.
After meeting with Malky and her parents, I had several conversations with their Rav, the Krulla Rebbe of Williamsburg.  He was concerned and supportive and offered to assist me in helping the Klein family with whom he was close with. 
I pleaded with the principal, a kindhearted and righteous person, who was opening a new high school to accept Malky.  She was reluctant because there was negative information out there. 
I advocated and ultimately the principal acquiesced.  But, it was only after she quietly told me that several mothers were calling her exclaiming that if Malky Klein is accepted, they will take their daughters out of the school. 
In fact, the principal said that one of the mothers explained that she was related to the Kleins and thus had first hand information of what transpires in their home and strongly urged the Rebbetzin not to accept Malky.  This required my investigation which revealed that no such cousin existed.  This is merely one example of the exaggerated and/or false reports that were made by mothers in the class.
While Malky was truly grateful to be accepted into the school, she longed to be with her friends and dreamed of joining them.    When Malky completed 9th grade, she was still hopeful that if she worked with tutors and tried harder, and got better grades in 10th grade, she would be able to transfer for 11th grade. 
Malky personally wrote letters to other school principals and begged to be given the chance, all to no avail.  Alas, despite all her efforts she cried to her parents “What it takes girls in my class seconds to learn, takes me hours. If this is what it means to be a good girl, it’s not for me!” And that was the beginning of the tragic end for Malky.  A sweet girl, who was so misunderstood and hurt, despite the unconditional love of her wonderful parents.
As we reject more children, the death rate goes up.  The Chazon Ish said that a decision to expel a child is Dinei Nefoshos and halachically requires a Bais Din of 23 members. 
In this undated Photo Malky Klein is seen at the KotelIn this undated Photo Malky Klein is seen at the Kotel
The Torah relates that a Bais Din that killed once in 70 years was considered a Bais Din of murderers.  Yet our system has resulted in approximately 70 deaths in less than one year due to rejection, despite the fact that so many sources do not support this policy. 
In the Gemara, Bava Basra (21a) R’ Shmuel Bar Shilas, an Amoira who was an educator in his time, stated that the student who does not study or behave appropriately, should not be tortured or expelled.  Rather, he should be kept together with the other students for ultimately he will turn around. 
The Rishonim, such as Nimokei Yosef, use even stronger language saying that it is prohibited to send off such a student, even on the possibility that it will set his heart in the right place.  The Maharsha (in Ruach HaKodesh) writes that keeping the child where he is, will be a big benefit for the other students. 
The Michtav Eliyahu by HaRav Dessler, asks why Noach did not send his wayward son, Chom, during the mabul, to check what is happening outside?  Why did Noach send a bird?  He answers that when there is a mabul raging outside you do not throw someone out even if he behaves badly.  So what happened in our community; why have so many of our children been cast away – thrown overboard into dangerous and troubled waters?
The Baal Teshuva Movement and the OTD Movement
I grew up and went to school in the 1970’s and 1980’s; it was the generation that proved Hitler was wrong, we were the grandchildren of Holocaust survivors.  It was the era of the Baal Teshuva Movement, the struggle to free Soviet Jewry, and of the inspirational public figures, R’ Shlomo Carlebach and Rebbetzin Esther Jungreis, who would reach out to the multitudes of people who were “coming home.”  It was the time when R’ Noach Weinberg started Aish HaTorah and when we opened the Jewish radio we heard songs by Baalei Teshuva about Shabbos and Chanukah candles….  We walked around so proud to be Jewish. 
I had classmates from a variety of backgrounds, and some girls had parents who were not frum from birth.  We all got along, our teachers valued each student, and encouraged us to reach greater heights in our connection to Hashem.  Some girls in my class had learning disabilities, but in those years, we didn’t know it, we just knew they failed most of their tests.  No one thought that these girls didn’t belong….no one’s parents called the school to complain or have them expelled. 
Today most of my classmates, including the weaker students, are married with children and grandchildren.  During those decades, the term Off the Derech (OTD) did not exist in our community; nobody I knew left Yiddishkeit – we valued life and knew that while we had our differences, some of us Litvish, some Chassidish, some Misnagdim, etc. – each of us was created with a Tzelem Elokim and had a purpose.
Something changed in the 1990’s – we thought we knew better than our parents and we were going to bring Torah to a level of unsurpassed excellence – we heralded  the advent of  Mitzuyanim -- yeshivas and schools with higher standards, and disenfranchised many students who could not keep up.  Thus began the Churban of our generation….the rejection of so many innocent children left behind, hurt and destroyed. 
The term Off the Derech had now been introduced into our lexicon as these rejected innocent souls turned to the streets and to drugs to numb their pain and leave Yiddishkeit, which they associated with shame and rejection.  And panic has ensued; parents are growing more concerned about what has become an epidemic with a vicious cycle of parents growing more alarmed, causing more children to be rejected, which only exacerbates the problem.
Some people compare the OTD movement to the Haskala movement which began in the late 18th century and was responsible for turning many away from Torah values.   There is a huge distinction between those who we lost to Haskala and the souls we are losing to the OTD movement. 
The Jews who joined the Haskala movement were beckoned by the outside world –they knew that in order to succeed in the professional world, to earn a college education and rise in academia, politics or the corporate world, one had to abandon Shabbos observance, traditional religious dress, etc.  That has changed, today one can be educated, enter the workforce, and even hold public office without compromising religious values.
However, the broken souls who are leaving the fold to join the OTD movement are being expelled by us!  They are given the message that they have no place in our community by schools and yeshivas who have shut the doors in their faces by expulsion or rejection.  It is more than twenty years since this churban began, and the rejection methods have not worked -- we need to unite and champion true Torah values to solve our problem.
Achdus and Arvus
The value of Achdus – Unity among the Jewish People is undisputed.  The greatest moment in Jewish history was Matan Torah, the Revelation at Sinai, which is memorialized in history by the description K’Eesh Echad B’Lev Achad – Like One Man, with One Heart.  In an article by Devir Kahan, (Times of Israel 1/11/2016) the author writes, we mistakenly confuse Achdus with Achidus and Unity with Uniformity.  While we aspire harmony, we mistakenly demand conformity and stunt creative individuality and inhibit growth.
The root of the word Achdus is Ach which represents brotherhood – siblings share a connection which surpasses friendship or love.  As Jews we are bound together – that is our heritage.  Kol Yisroel Areivim Ze L’Zeh (Sanhedrin 27b and Shavuos 39a).  All Jews are guarantors for one another. 
The Gemara explains the case that when others are punished for a person’s sins, it refers to a case where the people could have protested and maybe prevented the person from sinning. Judaism mandates joint and mutual responsibility.  Mutual responsibility means I help you because I know that one day you will help me.  Joint responsibility, however, is where I help you simply because I am responsible for you as a fellow Jew without any expectation that you will reciprocate.
Through my role at B’Derech, I have had children cry to me that since losing a parent, they have been unable to learn. I have heard Almanos cry that since losing their husbands they have been unable to keep up with their responsibilities, and that their children are failing in school…the boy whose father had a stroke was crying because his home was not a place for him to thrive…It seems we are remiss in our mandate of joint responsibility, of Achdus.
Since my election to the bench, I have been interviewed and invited to speak to various groups around the world to share my story. 
I recently spoke to a group of school principals in Borough Park and urged them to accept that students may be different and recognize that not every student will "fit into the one size fits all box" which our system has evolved into.  I explained that I was the average student who always had questions...all the way through high school and seminary.  That my Bais Yaakov teachers, many who were students of Sara Schenirer, a”h, were patient and answered all my questions. 
By the time I graduated Bais Yaakov, I had all the answers and knew what was expected of me Beyn Adom L'Makom and Beyn Adom L'Chaveiro.  A few weeks after my lecture, one of the principals met me and in front of a group of women, made a point of telling me that she disagreed with what I said and walked out of the room during my speech to display her rejection of my hashkafos.  She also made sure to tell the Hanhala of my infraction. 
When I questioned what bothered her she explained that we cannot encourage questions from students and that our Derech is too keep the students in a box without allowing for creativity of thought.  Now this was my turn to be rejected and publicly humiliated by a school principal.  But, I am neither vulnerable nor an adolescent.  And, with a confident smile I told the principal that we will have to agree to disagree and still be friends.     
In this week’s parsha, Moshe Rabbeinu tells Klal Yisroel before he leaves this world....She'al Nah L’Yomim HaRishonim (V’Eschanon 4:32).  At any given time and in any given place, just ask about Hashem’s miracles during Yetziyas Mitzrayim and Matan Torah
This most important point in Jewish history should be a topic of discussion and questions should be encouraged.  And, Moshe further states, Atah Horaysa L’Daas kee Hashem Hu HaElokim, Eyn Od Milvado. (ibid 4:35).  You were shown to KNOW that Hashem is our G-D.  Moshe is explaining that Hashem opened up the heavens to show us His strength because He wants us to know Him.  This is not about blind faith, rather it is about cultivating a relationship with Hashem and fulfilling His Mitzvos with the security of knowing Him.  In this way, we will experience our love for Hashem and the fulfillment of Ve'Ahavta Es Hashem Elokecha.   Our children need to graduate school with a Love of Yiddishkeit and Simcha in being a part of Klal Yisroel.
This principal reminded me of what we learned about the inhabitants of Sedom who were notorious for forcing everyone’s uniformity – Sanhedrin 109b states: They had beds [in Sedom] upon which travelers slept.  If he [the guest] was too long, they shortened him [by lopping off his feet]; if too short, they stretched him out.  Eliezer, Avroham’s servant, happened to go there.  They said to him, “Arise and sleep on the bed!”  He replied, “I vowed since the day of my mother’s death, not to sleep in a bed.”

VeAhavta LeReacha Kamocha vs. Chayecha Kodmin
VeAhavta LeReacha Kamocha (Kedoshim 19:18) Love your friend as you love yourself is one of the core principles of Judaism.  Rabbi Akiva teaches that this principle is a Klal Gadol BaTorah! (Talmud Yerushalmi Nedarim 9:4).  However, the same Rabbi Akiva seems to make a contradictory statement in the Gemara regarding what a person should do if he is travelling through a desert with a friend and only has enough water for one of them to survive.  (Bava Metziah 62a).  There, Rabbi Akiva interpreted the posuk “…. V’Chay Achicha Emuch… And your brother shall live with you” (Vayikra 25:36) as meaning ‘along with you’ or ‘secondary to you’.  He taught that one’s own life takes precedence over one’s fellow man. 
The Chasam Sofer explains that the word “Torah” from Zeh Klal Gadol B’Torah in Rabbi Akiva’s principle refers to the study of Torah to spirituality, Ruchniyus, and Olam HaBaah.  Conversely, Chayecha Kodmin, your own life only comes first, is with regard to Gashmius, namely, physical survival in this world.  It does not seem that Rabbi Akiva meant that students be rejected by schools rather we should apply the rule of Zeh Klal Gadol B’Torah.

Chochmah B’Goyim Taamin
Chochmah B’Goyim Taamin (Eichah Rabba 2) Perhaps there are some solutions that we can find outside our community.  Youth at Risk and drug overdose has presented itself in mainstream America way before it hit our community. 
Last year I ran for Civil Court Judge, thanks to the voters in Boro Park and Kensington and my many supporters, with Siyata D’Shmaya I won the election.  To my surprise, I was assigned to Brooklyn Criminal Court.  On my first day on the bench, I was introduced to the judge who would be my mentor, Judge Craig Walker. 
In New York, from the age of 16, a person who gets arrested is arraigned and tried in Criminal Court.  Judge Walker championed for the Youth Part so that defendants from 16 to 24 years of age are separated from the older defendants.  This is because research has shown that the human brain stops developing at the age of 24.  I sat on the bench many days with Judge Walker and observed numerous defendants who had dropped out of school, suffered rejection, isolation and ultimately committed crimes.  (Note, the law has recently changed; beginning in 2018 defendants ages 16-17 will go to Family Court).  In court, all the children charged with crimes are entitled to legal counsel and if a child is ordered not to return to his school, an alternative school is located.
Judge Walker has recently been recognized by acting Brooklyn District Attorney, Eric Gonzalez for his successful efforts to provide support, rehabilitation, social services, educational degrees etc. for these youth at risk.  Judge Walker sets the youth up for success and applauds everyone who receives a certificate of achievement in his courtroom.  Our educators can learn from Judge Walker’s success in turning around the lives of many young men and women in Brooklyn.
BOCES is a public school alternative for children unable to sit through traditional classrooms. The Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES) was formed by the NYS legislature in 1948 and has created an amazing network of schools which teach through hands-on learning.  For example, children who are interested in hair design, construction or automobiles, will sit in classrooms designed as salons, constructions sites or auto repair shops. I actually visited the BOCES in Orange County and was amazed at its success in transforming children who failed in class to excellent students.  Could we create such learning environments for our children who cannot sit in class for so many hours?
Another option seen in the public school system is advanced classes for the students who are capable of a more challenging curriculum.  Rather than taking weaker students out of class, labeling them “learning disabled” and creating a feeling of low self esteem by continuous tutoring and resource rooms, take out the advanced children and keep “average” a standard that most students can meet without pain.  This would seem to comport with Chanoch L’Naar Al Pi Darko (Mishlei 22:6).
Sinas Chinam vs. Ahavas Chinam
The Gemara (Yoma 9b) states that the Second Bais Hamikdash was destroyed because of Sinas Chinam, Baseless Hatred, despite the fact that the people at that time were Talmidei Chachomim, observed Mitzvos and performed Maasim Tovim.  Thus, their failure Beyn Adom L'Chaveiro wreaked havoc on the Jewish nation, facilitated the Churban Bais Hamikdash and the golus that ensued. 
In Orot HaKodesh vol. III, Rav Avraham Isaac HaKohen Kook, states "If we were destroyed and the world with us, due to baseless hatred, then we shall rebuild ourselves, and the world with us, with baseless love - Ahavas Chinam".  In the weeks that followed Malky's Petirah, her parents have exhibited incredible strength in forgiving the many people who have contributed to Malky's tragic saga.  Rather than cast blame they are investing incredible efforts in sharing Malky's story, creating awareness and mobilizing the community to understand how rejecting our youth is tantamount to a life sentence or more accurately, the death penalty.
Malky's parents understand that we must bring about change in the way we treat our children.  And just as the Constitution guarantees every American Citizen due process in judgment, so too, must all people of our community, father, mothers, sisters, brothers, aunts, uncles, cousins come together in unity, so that our children are judged fairly in school.  We must learn to accept that a child may be different, because that is the way Hashem created him, we need to allow creativity and teach our children Al Pi Darko to give them what is their right, namely, a Torah education without fear of rejection or shame.
Mothers and fathers need to be involved in the transmission of Torah values to their children.  We cannot rely on the system and relinquish our role as parents.  If my child was hurt by a teacher or felt wronged by his teacher, I explained that teachers are human beings and just like Moshe Rabbeinu made a mistake when he hit the rock instead of speaking to it (Chukas 19:1-22:1), teachers can also make mistakes. 
Our children need to feel unconditionally loved by their parents and by Hashem; and they in turn should be raised with the concept of VeAhavta Es Hashem Elokecha.  Our children should retain what we as parents teach them by example -- Shema Bni Mussar Avicha v’al Titosh Toras Emecha
Children should be encouraged to discuss Ikrei Emunah and Yesodos of Yiddishkeit with their parents and be able to freely ask questions without fear of criticism.  Parents should be prepared to answer questions and if they don’t know an answer, to praise the child for asking a question which requires some research. 
There are good sources for information for parents, as an example Beyond a Reasonable Doubt, Feldheim Publishers, by Rabbi Shmuel Waldman and GPS Navigation for Your Soul, Artscroll Shaar Press, by Yaakov Shain and Avi Fishoff, are excellent books on Hashkafa, Emunah and Bitachon.
It is inaccurate to cast the full blame on the schools and yeshivas as they are following the lead set by us…the parents. 
A couple of weeks ago, I was speaking to some women in my bungalow colony about Malky’s tragic story and explaining that mothers and fathers who call schools to complain about other children and demand that they be expelled, must realize that they are violating the rules of Shmiras HaLoshon
One of the women, a fine person with good middos, explained how she recently felt compelled to complain about a boy is her son’s class and felt justified in doing so as she was told Chayecha Kodmin.  I found so many Chazzal on caring and sharing another’s pain, such as being Noseya B’Ol Im Chaveiro, Al Tadin es Chavercha ad Shetagiya L’Mkomo, VeAhavta Lreyacha Kamocha.  Yet it seems that society has broadened the exception and narrowed the rule by being more and more exclusive and rejecting more children leading to an increase in the OTD population.
From the Sefer Baal Shem Tov, Parshas Kedoshim, we learn that “… that every bad decree that is decreed on a person, is decreed by himself.”  The Baal Shem Tov explains, of course no one decrees bad for himself.  What happens is that a person is shown someone else behaving in a certain way and that particular bad behavior can be found in him as well.  What he thinks and says to do with the other person, is what will be done to him.  How we treat other children, is how our children will be treated.
Call to Action
Hayom Katzer V’Hamlacha Meruba….Lo Alecha HaMlacha L’Gmor (Avos 2:20, 21) Each and every one of us needs to start taking small steps to work on changing our mindset and saving our children.  As the Mishnah states, we need not be concerned that the task is too great for us to finish, and at the same time, we are not absolved from trying….
R’ Moshe Feinstein writes in his Sefer Shaylos V’Teshuvos that one is obligated to give one-tenth of his fortune to tzeddakah so too, one must give from his spiritual wealth one-tenth to those in need of spirituality.  Each of us needs to reach out to help a child in need – a kid at risk.
Each and every one of us can make a difference.  It is not about the “system” the “school” or the “Hanhala” rather it is about each and every one of us in our own exclusive leadership position.  Whether we are at the helm of our household, the leader of a Tehilim group, the director in a corporate or business setting, etc. – Hashem gives each of us the opportunity to lead.  What does leadership entail?  When Hashem chose Moshe Rabbeinu as the leader of Klal Yisroel, he was chosen for his compassion – leadership is about compassion.
The Medrash (Shmos Rabbah 2:2) relates that once when Moshe was shepherding Yisro’s flock a little sheep ran away.  This little sheep did not conform and follow along with the rest of the flock – just like the student who does not keep up with the rest of the class.  Moshe ran after the sheep until it came to a small pool of water and stopped to drink. 
Instead of punishing the sheep, Moshe said “I did not know you were running because you were thirsty.  You must be tired.”  If we would understand that most likely the student who cannot keep up with the class is not being purposefully deviant, but may be thirsty, may be needy.  This student may be suffering from an ailment, from sickness, or from a broken home.
The Medrash concludes with Moshe’s statement “If only I had known that you thirsted for water.  You must be exhausted from running.” Moshe did not punish or isolate the sheep; rather he put the little sheep on his shoulders and brought him back to the flock.  Moshe did not see a “rebellious” soul, rather a frightened being in need of immediate care and attention. 
It was at that moment, that Hashem chose Moshe to be the leader of His people.  Each and every one of us needs to tap into our leadership roles and do what we can to fulfill the mandate Hashem has given us to lead His children with compassion and bring them all back to Him…V’Shuvu Bonim L’Gvulam.  May Malky be a Meylitza Yosher for us all so that we merit the Geulah --- B’Derech Hatorah Neylech.
I wish to thank my Choshuv son in law, Shia Fink, and my daughters, Shaindy Fink, Leah Freier and Faigy Freier for their time, input and insight which helped me in writing this article.  I am very proud of them.
Rachel E. Freier known as Ruchie Freier by her friends is a newly elected Civil Court Judge assigned to Brooklyn Criminal Court. She is from Boro Park and the proud mother and grandmother of a Chassidic family. She is the first Chassidic woman elected to public office. Ruchie is the founder of B'Derech, an organization created to assist Kids at Risk in the Chassidic Community and Director of Ezras Nashim, the first all womens' volunteer EMS agency. She graduated from Touro College with her BA and earned her JD from Brooklyn Law School.
You can view this article online at VosIzNeias.com/276361

Monday, July 31, 2017

Monsey Kinnah, appeared on FB, by Mordechay Granevich

מרדכי גרנביץ'
בַּפַּארְק בּמונסי בְּאֶמְצַע הַלַּיְלָה
יוֹשְׁבִים כָּל הַמִּי וָמִי.
מִגֶּזַע תַּרְשִׁישִׁים,
בְּנֵיהֶם שֶׁל קְדוֹשִׁים,
צוֹלְלִים לְתוֹךְ יַם הֶרוֹאִין.
אֵין לָהֶם אֵיפֹה לִישֹׁן,
אֵין גַּם אֵיפֹה לִהְיוֹת ערִים.
אַבָּא וְאִמָּא עֲסוּקִים,
לְנַקּוֹת אֶת הַשֵּׁם הַטּוֹב
לְמַעַן שִׁדּוּךְ וּמוֹסָדוֹת נֶחְשָׁבִים.
וּפַעַם בְּחֹדֶשׁ בְּעֵרֶךְ,
אוּדִים עֲשֵׁנִים
יוֹצְאִים מִיּעֲרוֹת
קָמִים מִן סַפְסָלִים
לְלַוּוֹת עוֹד חָבֵר שֶׁהָלַךְ אֶל הַנֶּצַח.
הֵם לֹא פְּטָרוּהוּ בְּלֹא צֵידָה,
מָנָה יְתֵרָה שֶׁל אַבְקָה לְבָנָה
וְכֻלָּם בחוץ יַגִּידוּ קַדִּישׁ
וִיצַקְצְקוּ נעבאך
עַל "מָה שֶׁקּוֹרֶה, לְמִי שֶׁעָזַב אֶת הַדֶּרֶךְ"
וְיַמְשִׁיכוּ לִשְׁמֹר
פַּךְ שׁמֵן טָהוֹר
לְמַעַן קְדֻשַּׁת הַדּוֹרוֹת הַבָּאִים

Friday, July 28, 2017

שיטת רש"י במה לי קטלה כולה מה לי קטלה פלגא ב"ק סה ע"א

Tisha B'Av Shiur, 9 Av @3pm EDT

Please join me for an online shi;ur on 

Inyanei Tisha b'Av:

Tefillas Nachem:

נַחֵם ה' אֱלֹקינוּ אֶת אֲבֵלֵי צִיּוֹן וְאֵת אֲבֵלֵי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם וְאֶת הָעִיר הָאֲבֵלָה וְהַחֲרֵבָה וְהַבְּזוּיָה וְהַשּׁוֹמֵמָה. הָאֲבֵלָה מִבְּלִי בָנֶיהָ וְהַחֲרֵבָה מִמְּעוֹנוֹתֶיהָ. וְהַבְּזוּיָה מִכְּבוֹדָהּ. וְהַשּׁוֹמֵמָה מֵאֵין יוֹשֵׁב. וְהִיא יוֹשֶׁבֶת וְרֹאשָׁהּ חָפוּי כְּאִשָּׁה עֲקָרָה שֶׁלֹּא יָלָדָה. וַיְבַלְּעוּהָ לִגְיוֹנוֹת. וַיִּירָשׁוּהָ עוֹבְדֵי פְסִילִים. וַיָּטִילוּ אֶת עַמְּךָ יִשְֹרָאֵל לֶחָרֶב. וַיַּהַרְגוּ בְּזָדוֹן חֲסִידֵי עֶלְיוֹן. עַל כֵּן צִיּוֹן בְּמַר תִּבְכֶּה. וִירוּשָׁלַיִם תִּתֵּן קוֹלָהּ. לִבִּי לִבִּי עַל חַלְלֵיהֶם. מֵעַי מֵעַי עַל חַלְלֵיהֶם. כִּי אַתָּה ה'בָּאֵשׁ הִצַּתָּהּ. וּבָאֵשׁ אַתָּה עָתִיד לִבְנוֹתָהּ. כָּאָמוּר וַאֲנִי אֶהְיֶה לָּהּ נְאֻם ה' חוֹמַת אֵשׁ סָבִיב וּלְכָבוֹד אֶהְיֶה בְּתוֹכָהּ. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה'מְנַחֵם צִיּוֹן וּבוֹנֵה יְרוּשָׁלָיִם

9 Av 5777
Aug 1, 2017 3
3:00 pm EDT

Stream here or at https://youtu.be/foITnp65SXY

Tuesday, July 25, 2017

Forks in the Road, with Shlomo Phillips

I only listened to the first few minutes of this shiur, so I cannot vouch for it, but it is based on my "Forks in the Road" essay - to be found at http://www.aishdas.org/rygb/forks.htm. Thanks to the Maggid Shiur for his kind words!

Special Places in Hell

There are special places in Hell waiting for some of the actors in this story:

Likewise, for actors in this story,


to which the backstory, from a reliable source, is that this innocent girl struggled through her school career with learning disabilities. When it came to getting accepted to high school she had a very hard time. Her parents had to beg to get her accepted. Finally one school agreed to accept this girl. A few weeks into school the principal called up this girls parents to inform them that she is being kicked out for various reasons. One of those reasons is that this girl ate in the pizza shop instead of taking home the pizza to eat it at home. You can imagine what her other infraction were all about. Her parents tried sticking up for her behalf but they were talking to the wall. Her parents were horrified and devastated. They begged the school to keep her until they find a different school that would accept her and keep her dignity. The school refused to listen. This broke this poor girl completely and her parents relate from there on it was downhill. She was out on the streets with no school and found friends who finally accepted her and saw her talents. Those friends weren't in the best shape either. However she was still in deep pain, and therefore she hooked up onto drugs which was like a bandage to her boo boo. She liked the way the drugs left her feeling and it became her new escape. Her parents tried everything in there power to ease her pain. She had just come home from rehab after being there for 2 years. Despite all of that she couldn't fight the demons of pain and she succumbed to drug overdose.


RHM has blogged this at http://haemtza.blogspot.com/2017/07/the-root-cause.html

It is worthwhile to consider in this context this must-watched video:

Tuesday, July 18, 2017

Rashbi and Lag BaOmer Bonfires: Bava Kamma 61b

תלמוד בבלי מסכת בבא קמא דף סא/ב

משנה המדליק בתוך שלו עד כמה תעבור הדליקה רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר רואין אותו כאילו הוא באמצע בית כור ר"א אומר ט"ז אמות כדרך רשות הרבים רבי עקיבא אומר חמשים אמה ר"ש אומר שלם ישלם המבעיר את הבערה הכל לפי הדליקה: גמרא ולית ליה לר"ש שיעורא בדליקה והתנן לא יעמיד אדם תנור בתוך הבית אלא אם כן יש על גבו גובה ד' אמות היה מעמידו בעלייה עד שיהא תחתיו מעזיבה שלשה טפחים ובכירה טפח ואם הזיק משלם מה שהזיק ר' שמעון אומר לא נאמרו שיעורין הללו אלא שאם הזיק פטור מלשלם אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה הכל לפי גובה הדליקה אמר רב יוסף אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה כר' שמעון וכן אמר רב נחמן אמר שמואל הלכה כר"ש

I am learning Bava Kamma b'iyun with my chevrusa, Reb Moshe Klein. He noted that the hadlokos for R' Shimon bar Yochai on Lag b'Omer could be very nicely connected with this Mishnah and Gemara. I spent some time last night and did not find anyone remark this obvious connection! Strange!

Thursday, July 06, 2017

Video Shiur: Astronomical Halachic Repercussions: Parameters of Day and Night

Astronomical Halachic Repercussions:  
Parameters of Day and Night

Shiur on July 6, 2017 IDT Corporation (The Yeshiva of Newark), 
substituting for my friend Rabbi Avrohom Kivelevitz 
(who also came up with the title), 
on Zmanim of Alos HaShachar and Tzeis HaKokhavim. 
Thanks Ari Rosman for recording!

Friday, June 30, 2017

Honesty: The Smag

See the amazing Divrei Yonah below at bottom, courtesy of Rabbi Chaim Lando!

In light of current events, the following Smag* should be widely perused and disseminated. Perhaps ironically, I first heard it from Rabbi Matisyahu Solomon shlita (my translation):


Smag Aseh 74:

And I have already expounded to Galus Yerushalayim in Spain (Sefarad) and the other Galuyos under Christianity (Edom), that now that the Galus has lasted too long a Jew must separate himself from the frivolities (Hevlei) of the world and grasp the seal of Ha'Kadosh Baruch Hu, which is Truth, and not lie, neither to Jews nor to non-Jews, nor to deceive them in any matter, and to sanctify ourselves even in that which is permissible to us, as it says (Tzefani'a 3:13): "The remnant of Israel will not commit foul deeds nor speak falsehoods, nor will there be found in their mouths treacherous tongues." And then, when Ha'Kadosh Baruch Hu comes to redeem us the non-Jews will say that He is just in doing so, for we are men of truth and Toras Emes is in our mouths.

But if we conduct ourselves towards the non-Jews with deceit (Rama'us), then they will say: "See what Ha'Kadosh Baruch Hu has done, that He has chosen as His portion thieves and cheats."

Furthermore, it is written (Hoshe'a 2:25): "And I will plant them in the earth." Why does a person plant a measure of grain in the earth? In order to cultivate several measures. So too Ha'Kadosh Baruch Hu planted Yisroel in the various lands so that converts would join us. As long as we conduct ourselves amongst them with deceit who will cling to us? And, we find that Ha'Kadosh Baruch Hu was upset even by theft from evildoers, as it says(Bereishis 6:11): " And the land was filled with theft (Chamas)."

Further, I bring proof from the Yerushalmi Chapter Eilu Metzi'os (Halocho 5), where it says: "The elder rabbis (Rabbanan Savi'ai) bought a measure of grain from non-Jews and found within it a bundle of money. They returned it to them, and the non-Jews said: 'Blessed is the G-d of the Jews.'" Many similar stories of lost items that were returned to non-Jews because of Kiddush Hashem are related there.

(That's the same Yerushalmi cited in the review article in the immediately preceding blog post.)

Friday, June 23, 2017

My Review in JA of Making It Work: A Practical Guide to Halacha in the Workplace

My latest published article, a book review in the current issue of Jewish Action.

Making It Work: A Practical Guide to Halacha in the Workplace - Jewish Action 

By Ari Wasserman Feldheim Publishers 

New York, 2016 538 pages 

Reviewed by Yosef Gavriel Bechhofer 

The published version is slightly different than my original, unedited text. The original version is at https://od.lk/f/121055662_xow1d

Sunday, June 18, 2017

The Ohr HaChaim HaKadosh on Non-Jews

אור החיים על שמות פרק יח פסוק כא

 וראיתי לתת לב, איך זכה יתרו, שתכתב על ידו פרשה זו, והן אמת כי הוא כיבד משה עבד ה', והנה שכרו שכבדו ה', אלא היה ה' יכול עשות לו דרך כבוד אחר לא בדרך זה שיראה חס ושלום כפחות ידיעה בעם ה', עד שבא כהן מדין והשכילם:

 ונראה כי טעם הדבר הוא להראות ה' את בני ישראל הדור ההוא וכל דור ודור, כי יש באומות גדולים בהבנה ובהשכלה, וצא ולמד מהשכלת יתרו בעצתו ואופן סדר בני אדם אשר בחר, כי יש באומות מכירים דברים המאושרים, והכוונה בזה, כי לא באה הבחירה בישראל, לצד שיש בהם השכלה והכרה יותר מכל האומות, וזה לך האות השכלת יתרו, הא למדת כי לא מרוב חכמת ישראל והשכלתם בחר ה' בהם, אלא לחסד עליון ולאהבת האבות, ויותר יערב לחיך טעם זה למאן דאמר יתרו קודם מתן תורה בא (ילק"ש רמז רסח), כי נתחכם ה' על זה קודם מתן תורה לומר שהגם שיש באומות יותר חכמים מישראל אף על פי כן אותנו הביא ה' אליו ובחר בנו, ועל זה בפרט עלינו לשבח לאשר בחר בנו מצד חסדיו, גם למאן דאמר (שם) אחר מתן תורה [בא], יש טעם במה שסדר ביאתו קודם, להראות הכוונה הנזכרת, שזולת זה אין הכוונה הנזכרת נגלית, והבן:

Tuesday, June 13, 2017

Rav Henkin on Esav Sonei L'Yaakov (from Wikipedia)

מאידך, הרב יוסף אליהו הענקין תקף בחריפות גישה זו כפי שמובא בספר תשובות איברא סימן קט"ז. "ועוון פלילי מצד אותם המטיפים הפטפטנים שדורשים תמיד 'הלכה הוא שעשו שונא ליעקב', והשנאה עולמית. זה נגד האמת ונגד חז"ל והמקרא, שעשו גופא לא הי' רשע תמיד ושנאתו פסקה על ידי הנהגה מתאמת וכמו עשו הראשון כן הם ג"כ דורותיו שהכנעה מביאה לשלום, וזהו שאמר בן זומא (אבות פ"ד מ"א) 'איזהו מכובד המכבד את הבריות', כונתו גם נגד האומות, כשמכבדים אותם ואומרים להם אוהבי אתה הם נעשים לאוהבים על ידי זה ולהיפך כשאומרים שונא אתה נעשים לשונא וזהו מעשים בכל יום". כלומר, לדעתו אין לראות במדרש זה קביעה כאילו ששנאתו של עשיו היא נצחית, אלא עשיו שינה את יחסו ליעקב לאורך חייו, ובאופן דומה גם צאצאיו של עשיו יכולים לשנות את יחסם לישראל מתקופה לתקופה.

Of course, many disagree. But mostly contemporaries of Rav Henkiin. See the Wikipedia entry. See also the discussion of the evident typo of "Halacha" instead of "HaLo" at:

Friday, June 09, 2017

Lechatchilah and Bidieved in Yerushalmi

תלמוד ירושלמי מסכת גיטין דף כט/א הלכה ד

מתני' יתומים שסמכו אצל בעל הבית או שמינה להן אביהן אפיטרופוס חייב לעשר פירותיהן אפיטרופוס שמינהו אבי יתומים ישבע ושמינהו בית דין לא ישבע אבא שאול אומר חילוף הדברים גמ' (במדבר יח) אתם פרט לשותפין. אתם פרט לאפיטרופוס. אתם פרט לתורם שאינו שלו. אתם פרט לשותפין. והתנינן השותפין שתרמו. אלא כאן בתרומה גדולה. כאן בתרומת מעשר. כלום למדו תרומה גדולה לא מתרומת מעשר. אלא כאן להלכה. כאן למעשה

One of these two words means לכתחלה. The other means בדיעבד. The Korban HaEdah says L'Ma'aseh means L'Chatchilah and L'Halacha means B'di'eved. The Pnei Moshe says the reverse. Who's right? Who knows? But I'm inclined to the Korban HaEdah.

Wednesday, May 24, 2017

The Ponevezher Rav zt"l on Yom Yerushalayim

The Ponevezher Rav zt"l on Yom Yerushalayim

A translated excerpt from Wikipedia:

Following Israel's military successes of the Six Day War, he published an article which included the following:
My dear brothers! Can we allow ourselves to be small minded at this great and awesome hour? Should we not be embarrassed to remain unobservant of this wondrous period, when we are surrounded by obvious miracles, and even a blind person can sense the palpable miracles... the miracles, wonders, salvations, comforts and battles [Ed. a reference to the Al HaNissim prayer recited on Purim and Hannukah], that occurred in the Holy Land and in the Holy City [Ed. of Jerusalem] and the Temple Mount, even those who saw it with their own eyes, even those who experienced it themselves, they cannot manage to express the depths of their emotions. Perhaps one like myself who was wandering during those days among the Jewish communities in the Diaspora, is better capable of recognizing the tremendous miracles and can consider the nature of these wondrous events.
— Rabbi Kahaneman, Beit Yaakov monthly, edition 100, Elul 5727

Not related to the post, but a nice video:

This video is somewhat related:

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

הבנה חדשה בשיטת רב דחיוב בור הוא מחמת הבלא

Image result for ‫בור ברשות הרבים‬‎

הרבה דיו נשפך והרבה קולמוסים נשתברו בנסיונות להבין את שיטת רב שבור שחייבה תורה את בעליה הוא משום הבלא  דידה ולא משום חבטה

הבנה חלקית המתקבלת על הדעת נמצא באגרות משה חו"מ ח"א סי' צ"ט בטעם שמחייב רב בנשברה מפרקתו

וצריך לומר שזהו מחדושי דין הבור שאם גם עשה קצת בההיזק נחשב כל המעשה על שם ההבלא וחייב כאלו עשה הכל וזה שאמרו חכמים שההבל עשה עכ"פ קצת בההיזק. ואף אם הוא באופן שע"י החבטא לבד היה מת וניזוק נמי כיון שעכ"פ עשה גם ההבל אף רק מקצת בררך זה יכול וזה אינו יכול שהוא רק כמסייע שאין בו מטש לדינים אחרים בשבת רף צ"ג נחשב בבור כל המעשה על שם ההכלא וחייב.

אכן זה נכון בסבה שמחייב רב משום הבלא. אולם כל זה לא יושיענו בהבנת מפני מה מחייב רב רק משום הבלא ולא ג"כ משום חבטה

והנראה בזה הוא עפי"ד רש"י ז"ל בבא קמא נ"ג ע"א

וזה וזה בבור - ואפילו הכי אשמועינן מתניתין דפטור הואיל ולא מהבלא מית אלא מחבטא וקרקע עולם דבני רה"ר הזיקתו

דלכא' צ"ע טובא מה הוסיך רש"י בתיבות "דבני רה"ר" - הלא "קרקע עולם" הוא מושג בלתי תלוי בבעלות של בני רה"ר

וכן יש להתקשות בדבריו בדף נ' ע"ב 

קרקע עולם - ואינו שלו

 דמשמע דכל הפטור הוא מפני שאין לבעל הבור בעלות בבור. ולכא' הוא פלאי, דפטור קרקע עולם משום דאיהו מאי קעביד ולא משום שאינו בעלים

ברם יעויין בדף נ"ג ע"א דאיתא להדיא דלרב בור ברשותו חייב - והיינו גם משום חבטה. ועכצ"ל דגם לרב יש סבת חיוב שלחבטה בבור - אך רק כשהחבטה דידיה - ולכן פטור בבור ברה"ר משום שקרקע הבור שייך לבני רה"ר (ונפק"מ דאם יש רשות אחראית על רה"ר כגון זק טובי העיר יתכן שהם חייבים לפצות את בעל השור שניזוק בבור ברה"ר). וע"כ אליבא דרב רק משום הבלא שייך לחייב את הכורה בר"ר - כי ההבלא פנים חדשות הוא, וחייב עליו משום שהוא יצרתו, ודוק

ותן לחכם ויחכם עוד

שוב קבלתי מכתב המשלים את דברינו מן הרה"ג ר' ישראל איסר צבי הרצג שליט"א 


מחלוקות רב ושמואל בענייני ארבעה אבות נזיקין

מצאנו שלש מחלוקות בין רב ושמואל בענייני ארבעה אבות נזיקין בחציו הראשון של בבא קמא. א) רב סבר מבעה זה אדם ותנא שור וכל מילי דשור ושמואל סבר מבעה זה השן ותנא שור לרגלו או לקרנו, ב) רב סבר אבנו סכינו ומשאו שהניחן ברה"ר ולא אפקרינהו הוו שור ושמואל סבר הוו בור, ג) רב סבר בור שחייבה עליו תורה להבלו ולא לחבטו ושמואל סבר להבלו ולחבטו. ננסה להציע גישה להבנת מחלוקות אלו שתסבירן על פי מחלוקת ביסוד אחד

נתחיל במחלוקת השלישית. בזאת חולקים רב ושמואל מהקצה אל הקצה. רב סובר שבהבלו קיימת סיבה לחייב ובחבטו אין שום סיבה לחייב. שמואל גם סובר שבהבלו קיימת סיבה לחייב אלא שסובר שבחבטו יש אפילו יותר סיבה לחייב. באיזו סברא חולקים? יש להסביר שלפי רב מה שמחייב אדם עבור מעשה נזק הוא בעלותו על המזיק. בור ברה"ר שחייבתו התורה עליו  בודאי אינו ממונו במובן הרגיל. אין לבעל הבור שום זכויות בבור. אבל התורה גזרה שהבור הוא ממונו בנוגע לחיוב נזיקין. לפי רב, לא מסתבר שהתורה תחייב את הבעלים עבור חבטו משום שלקרקע הבור כבר יש בעלים אחרים. קרקע הבור היא רכושו של הרבים. לכן סובר רב שבור שחייבה עליו תורה להבלו משום של הבל לא היו בעלים לפניו וגם משום שהכורה יצר את ההבל הזה

לפי דברינו מובנת גם שיטת רב בפירוש המשנה הראשונה של מסכתין. לפי רב ארבעה אבות נזיקין הם כללים של בעלות. אדם חייב עבור מזיקים כי הוא בעלים עליהם. ישנם ארבעה סוגי בעלות שעבורם הבעלים חייבים על נזקים שנעשו על ידי ממונו. תנא שור וכל מילי דשור כי בעלות האדם על שורו זהה בין אם שור הזיק על ידי קרן, בין אם הזיק על ידי שן, ובין אם הזיק על ידי רגל. ומשום הכי סובר רב שאבנו סכינו ומשאו שהניחן ברה"ר ולא אפקרינהו הם שור, שהרי בעלותו על חפציו כגון אס"ו היא בעלות פשוטה ושלימה בדיוק כמו בעלותו על שורו. לפי רב כשהברייתא אומרת ג' אבות נאמרו בשור, הכוונה היא שבתוך הכלל של שור שמחייב אדם עבור ממונו ממש, התורה פרטה ג' מקרים מסוימים שיש להם הלכות מיוחדות, אבל האב הגדול של שור כולל יותר מקרים משלשה אלו, כגון אס"ו דלא אפקרינהו. אס"ו אינו לא קרן ולא שן ולא רגל ואין להם הלהלכותיהן של אבות הללו, אבל עדיין חייב משום שור

לפי דרכינו צריכים לומר שרב לומד אס"ו מצד השוה משור ובור וסובר שלדבר הנלמד מצד השוה אין הקולות של המלמדים. יוצא לרב שארבעה אבות הנזיקין מוגדרים כשור, דהיינו רכוש רגיל, בור, דהיינו הבעלות על הבל בור, מבעה, דהיינו בעלות על גופו, והבער, שהוא בעלות על דבר שרוח אחר מעורב בו. כשהמשנה אומרת מה לשור שכן יש בו רוח חיים, אע"ג ששור כולל גם אס"ו לפי רב, הכוונה היא שאילו היה כתוב רק שור בתורה בלי בור, היינו מגדירים את שור כבעלות על בעל חיים דוקא. רק אחרי שגילתה לנו התורה פרשת בור אפשר להבין ששור כולל כל ממון

לשמואל יש שיטה אחרת. לפי שמואל לא קיים כלל רחב של שור שכולל בתוכו קרן שן רגל ועוד מקרים. שור אינו כלל. שור אינו אלא סוג בהמה. כשהברייתא אומרת ג' אבות נאמרו בשור אין הכוונה אלא שהתורה השתמשה בשור בתיאורה של שלשה אבות נזיקין. אם כן, כשהמשנה משתמשת במונח שור אין אומרים שכוונתה לכלל שכולל תת-אבות כמו שסובר רב שלפי שמואל לא קיים כלל כזה, ובעל כרחך שאין כוונת המשנה אלא לאחד משלשה האבות שנאמרו בשור. יוצא לפי שמואל שאין האבות דמתני' כללים בסוגי בעלות שהרי לפי הבנתו בעלות על שור היא בדיוק אותה בעלות שיש לאדם על מבעה ובכל זאת הם שני אבות שונים. האבות דמתני' לפי שמואל הם סוגי מעשי נזק

שמואל יסבור שגם בור אינו סוג בעלות אלא סוג מעשה, כסברת התוס' רי"ד בדף נ"ג ע"א "דכך חשיבא ליה תקלת בור כאילו הבעלים דחוהו שם שכל מעשה הבור גרמא הוא והבורא חייבו בגרמא זו כאילו עשה מעשה בידים". לפי שמואל לא קיים בעיה של קרקע עולם בחבטה שלא איכפת לן מי הוא הבעלים על הקרקע כשם שלא איכפת לן אילו דחה אדם את חבירו לקרקע והזיקו. וכן אס"ו חייב משום בור אפילו בדלא אפקרינהו משום שלא הזיקו הבעלים על ידי מעשה ממש אלא על ידי גרמא של עשיית תקלה

לדרך זו בהבנת פלוגתות רב ושמואל טרם מצאתי סתירה מדברי רש"י

אפשר לתלות את מחלוקת רב ושמואל כפי שנסחנו אותה בחקירת האחרונים הידועה בסיבת חיוב תשלומי נזק – האם בעל המזיק (או המזיק עצמו באדם המזיק) חייב עבור אחריותו לנזק בגלל שפשע בחיוב שמירתו, או דילמא אין המזיק חייב עבור מה שהוא עשה אלא עבור מה שממונו עשה. התורה הטילה חיוב על בעל מזיק לא בשביל רשלנותו אלא בשביל שחלק מבעלות על חפץ הוא החיוב לשלם תשלומי נזק עבור מעשי נזק מסויימים שממונו עשה, ואם אמנם פטור משום אונס אם שמר כראוי, אין להסיק מזה שסיבת החיוב היא הפשיעה. לפי דברינו יש לומר שרב שסובר שאבות הנזיקין הם סוגי בעלות סובר שסיבת החיוב היא פשיעה, וה"להלכותיהן" השונות באבות הנזיקין נובעות ממה שצורת בעלות על שור שונה מצורת בעלות על בור, ושתיהן שונות מצורת בעלות על אש או על גוף עצמו, ולסוגי הבעלות השונים יש מדות אחריות שונות שבגללן יש הבדלים בפרטי חיובן ופטורן. וכך משמע גם מדברי רש"י ריש דף נ"ח ע"א ד"ה לא מבעיא שלכאורה מייחס לרב סברת פשיעת הבעלים אע"ג שנסינו להראות בספרינו שברוב סוגיות מסכתין רש"י נוקט את הסברא של מעשה ממונו

כל זה בנוגע לרב, אבל לשמואל אבות הנזיקין הם מעשים שונים כי הוא סובר שחילוקי דיניהם של האבות נובעים דוקא ממה שהם מעשים שונים. התורה חייבה תשלומים עבור מעשה הנזק, לא עבור פשיעת הבעלים בחיוב שמירתם

אם נפרש כן, נוכל לבאר עוד פלוגתא בין רב ושמואל. בדף כ' ע"א סובר רב שכל המשנה ובא אחר ושינה בו פטור ולכן אכלה כסות וכלים ברה"ר פטור, ולפי שמואל חייב. לפי דברינו יש לפרש שלפי רב בכל פרשיות המזיקים שבתורה, הניזק אינו מתואר כמתנהג באופן משונה. רב מסיק מזה שאין חיוב אחריות על הבעלים לשמור ממונם אלא במקום שאין הניזק גורם לנזקו. כשהניזק משנה, צורת השמירה שהבהמה צריכה שונה היא מהרגיל, וחיוב שמירה כזה לא חייבה התורה, והבעלים פטורים. אבל לפי שמואל, בכל מקרה שהבהמה עשתה את מעשה הנזק יש כאן מחייב, ואין הדבר תלוי בהתנהגות הניזק